Plastic is a general name for a large group of high molecular organic materials which are virtually fully formed in a synthetic way.
They are materials with specific characteristics and can in many cases be used as substitutes for existing materials or which the raw materials are becoming scarce or which are harmful to the environment.
Similar as for synthetic rubber, the source for the plastic industry is oil. They are actually leftover products, during the production of gasoline, kerosene, or they can also be separately made during the cracking processes of oil.
There are a vast number of different kinds of plastic; because of that variety their characteristics differ strongly.
We can separate them into 2 main groups: Thermo softening plastic or thermoplastic and Thermosetting plastic or thermosets.
We work with thermoplastic; these are built in the same way as the synthetic rubber; from long molecular chains.
Thermoplastic are very temperature sensitive; they always become soft at high temperatures and fragile or even break at very low temperatures. Under normal circumstances they are hard.
The allowed measure tolerance is a percentage of the DIN ISO norm.
That particular characteristic permits the extrusion of profiles and injection molding of shaped parts.
We can subdivide Thermoplastic in groups:
– PE: polyethylene
– PP: polypropylene
– PVC: polyvinylcloride
– PS: polystyreen
– ABS: acrylonitril-styrene
– PA: polyamide (nylon)
The choice depends on the application.